The Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (1979–89) caused the migration of some 2.6 million Afghans into Iran. Since then they have been spread out through different cities. Tehran, the capital of Iran, and its provinces are the main destination. The goal of the paper is that of providing a general overview on the relationship between Afghan immigrants and urban space in Iranian cities. The first section traces the history of Afghan immigration in Iranian cities from the Nineteenth Century until today. The second focuses on the way Afghan immigration is regulated in State legislation. The third reconstructs the way Afghan immigrants are depicted in movies and on the media. The conclusive section investigates the relationship between Afghan immigrants and urban space in Teheran.